Academic Resources

This section provides a number of academic resources related to PAOC and Pentecostal History for the use of students and researchers.

Please scroll down to find the following resources:

PAOC Archives Online Finding Aid

The Archives Association of Ontario has created a website called ARCHEION where you can browse the finding aids of dozens of Ontario Archives, including our own.

Archival finding aids are divided into groups called “fonds” in archives terminology. Our Archives has 81 such groups of records. Each fonds represents a distinct record-producing unit in the Fellowship such as a District, a Bible College, a national office function (e.g., General Superintendent), a local church and even some prominent individuals for whom we have a significant quantity of records. The finding aids provide an administrative history of the record-producing body and a scope and content note describing the types of records on file for that fonds. The Administrative History entries constitute the most complete, up-to-date and authoritative summary of all the functional units of the PAOC ever created.

To view the finding aid, go to:

To display links to all of the fonds in our collection, click on “Browse 81 holdings” at the bottom of the column on the left. To search for a specific person or function, click on the Archeion logo on the top left then choose a “Browse by” category and enter your search name of word(s)then click on the search icon (magnifying glass ) at the left of the search bar.

The project was made possible with financial assistance from the Federal Government through Canadian Heritage and the Canadian Council of Archives.

How To Write a Local Church History

How to Write a Local Church History by C. Roy Fortune. This excellent paper by a PAOC layperson who is a trained historian provides helpful information on how to capture the story of your own church. Click the link below to download the paper:

How to Write a Local Church History
Oral History Project: Term Paper Instructions for College/Seminary Students

The following documents provide complete instructions and forms for students wishing to participate in the PAOC Archives Oral History Project as part of their academic work with the permission of their teacher or professor.

Instructions to ProfessorDetailed instructions for professors using the Oral History Project in their classroom

Description and GuidelinesExplains the rationale, objectives, logistics, assignment requirements, and guidelines for the Oral History Project

Sample Interview QuestionsSome sample interview questions to use when conducting the interviews

Recording InstructionsHelpful guidelines for recording interviews

Transcript Format GuidelinesGuidelines for formatting the completed transcript of an interview


Interviewer ContractThe Interviewer Agreement required of all oral history project participants

Copyright AssignmentContract to be signed by the person conducting the interview

Narrator Release FormContract to be signed by the person being interviewed

Academic Theses and Term Papers

The following authors have made their academic work on PAOC history available to assist researchers in their personal research. These documents are not provided for the purpose of sale or publication in any form including placement on other websites.

“‘Out and Out for the Lord’ James Eustace Purdy, An Early Anglican Pentecostal”James D. Craig. MA Thesis, University of St. Michael's College ©1995

Table of Contents

  • Acknowledgements
  • Introduction
  • Chapter 1 - Biographical Background
    • Early Life (1880-1901)
    • Wycliffe College (1902-1907)
    • Anglican Ministry (1907-1925)
  • Chapter 2 - Purdie's Significance
    • Historiographical Background
    • Purdie's Acceptance and Impact
    • "No creed nor form can stand the storm"
    • Purdie's Anglicanism
    • Purdie's Uniqueness
  • Chapter 3 - The Evangelical Anglican Context
  • Chapter 4 - The Early Pentecostal Context
  • Chapter 5 - The "Pentecostal Piety" Of James Eustace Purdie
    • Articulating Spiritual Experiences
    • Priorities for the Christian Life
    • Practices of Ministry
  • Conclusion
  • Selected Bibliography 

Bibliography on Canadian Pentecostalism
Canadian Pentecostal History Bibliography

Early Periodicals

The Apostolic Faith (1906-1908)

The Apostolic Messenger (1908-)

The Good Report (1911-1913)

The Pentecostal Testimony (1920-)

The Promise (1907-1910)


Airhart, Phyllis. Serving the Present Age: Revivalism, Progressivism and the Methodist Tradition in Canada. Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1992.

Anderson, Robert Mapes. Vision of the Disinherited: The Making of American Pentecostalism. New York: Oxford University Press, 1979.

Atter, Gordon. The Third Force, 3rd ed. Peterborough: The College Press, 1970.

__________. Down Memory's Lane. St Catharines, 1974.

Bartleman, Frank. Azusa Street. South Plainfield, NJ: Bridge Publishing Co. Inc., 1980.

Bennett, Dennis J. Nine O'clock in the Morning. Plainfield, NJ: Logos International, 1970.

Bloch-Hoell, Nils. The Pentecostal Movement. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, 1964.

Blumhofer, Edith L. The Assemblies of God: A Chapter in the Story of Pentecostalism, 2 vols. Springfield, MO: Gospel Publishing House, 1989.

_______, Russell P. Spittler, Grant Wacker. Pentecostal Currents in American Protestantism. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1999.

Brown, V.G., ed. Fifty Years of Pentecostal History 1933-1983. Burlington: The Western Ontario District, The Pentecostal Assemblies of Canada, 1983.

Brumback, Carl. Suddenly from Heaven: A History of the Assemblies of God. Springfield, MO: Gospel Publishing House, 1961.

Burgess, Stanley M. and Gary B. McGee, eds. Dictionary of Charismatic and Pentecostal Movements. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing Company, 1988. S.v. "Purdie, James Eustace" by R.A.N. Kydd.

_______, Eduard M van der Maas. New International Dictionary of Pentecostal and Charismatic Movements. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing Company, 2001.

The Canadian Encyclopedia. Edmonton: Hurtig, 1985. S.v. "Holiness Movement," by R. Gerald and Helen Hobbs.

Chambers, George Augustus. Fifty Years in the Service of the King. Toronto: The Testimony Press, 1960.

Clark, S.D. Church and Sect in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1948.

Dayton, Donald W. The Theological Roots of Pentecostalism. Grand Rapids: Francis Asbury Press, 1987.

Dempster, Murray W., Byron D. Klaus, Douglas Petersen. The Globalization of Pentecostalism, A Religion Made to Travel. Irving, CA: Regnum Books International, 1999.

Dieter, Melvin E. The Holiness Revival of the Nineteenth Century. Methuen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press, 1980.

Douglas, James D., ed. The New International Dictionary of the Christian Church. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1974. S.v. "Purdie, James Eustace."

Encyclopedia of American Religious Experience. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1987. S.v. "Holiness and Perfection," by Jean Miller Schmidt.

Ervin, Howard M. These Are Not Drunken As Ye Suppose. Plainfield, NJ: Logos International, 1968.

French, Goldwin. Parsons and Politics: The Role of the Wesleyan Methodists in Upper Canada and the Maritimes from 1850 to 1855. Toronto: Ryerson Press, 1962.

Frodsham, Stanley. With Signs Following. Springfield, MO: Gospel Publishing House, 1946.

Gee, Donald. The Pentecostal Movement. London: Elim Publishing Company, Limited, 1949.

Goff, James R. Jr. Fields White Unto Harvest: Charles F. Parham and the Missionary Origins of Pentecostalism. Fayetteville, AK: University of Arkansas Press, 1988.

Grant, John Webster, ed. The Churches and the Canadian Experience. Toronto: Ryerson Press, 1963.

________ A Profusion of Spires. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1988.

________. The Church in the Canadian Era. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Press, 1972.

Handy, Robert T. A History of the Churches in the United States and Canada. New York: Oxford University Press, 1977.

Hodges, Melvin. The Indigenous Church. Springfield, MO: Gospel Publishing House, 1953.

Hollenweger, Walter J. The Pentecostals. Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House, 1972.

________. Pentecostalism, Origins and Developments Worldwide. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 1997.

Horner, Ralph C. Ralph C. Horner, Evangelist: Reminiscences from His Own Pen. Brockville: Standard Church Book Room, n.d.

Jones, Charles Edwin. A Guide to the Study of the Holiness Movement. American Theological Library Association Bibliography Series no 1. Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press Inc. and the American Theological Library Association, 1974.

________ A Guide to the Study of the Pentecostalism, Vol.s 1. & 2. Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press Inc. and the American Theological Library Association, 1983.

________, Perfectionist Persuasion: The Holiness Movement in American Methodism. Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press, 1974.

Kulbeck, Gloria Grace. What God hath Wrought. Toronto: Full Gospel Publishing House, 1958.

Kydd, Ronald A. N. Charismatic Gifts in the Early Church. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 1984.

________. Healing Through the Centuries. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 1998.

Lawrence, Bennett F. The Apostolic Faith Restored. Springfield, MO: Gospel Publishing House, 1916.

Mann, W.E. Sect, Cult and Church in Alberta. Toronto. University of Toronto Press, 1955.

Marsden, George. Fundamentalism and American Culture. New York: Oxford University Press, 1980.

McClung, L. Grant Jr. (ed.). Azusa and Beyond. Pentecostal Missions and Church Growth in the Twentieth Century. South Plainfield, NJ: Bridge Publishing, 1986.

McGee, Gary B. Initial Evidence. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 1991.

Menzies, William W. Anointed to Serve: The Story of the Assemblies of God. Springfield, MO: Gospel Publishing House, 1971.

Miller, Thomas William. Canadian Pentecostalism: A History of the Pentecostal Assemblies of Canada. Mississauga, ON: Full Gospel Publishing House, 1994.

Mol, Hans. Faith and Fragility: Religion and Identity in Canada. Burlington: Trinity, 1985.

Nichol, John T. Pentecostalism. New York: Harper and Row, 1966.

Nienkirchen, Charles. A. B. Simpson and the Pentecostal Movement. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 1992.

Noll, Mark. A History of Christianity in the United States and Canada. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1992.

Orr, J. Edwin. The Flaming Tongue: The Impact of the Twentieth Century Revivals. Chicago; University of Chicago Press, 1973.

________. The Second Great Evangelical Awakening in Britain. London: Marshall, Morgan and Scott, 1949.

Poloma, Margaret, M. The Assemblies of God at the Crossroads. Charisma and Institutional Dilemma. Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee Press, 1988.

________. The Charismatic Movement: Is There a New Pentecost? Boston, MA: Twayne Publications, 1982.

Pommerville, Paul A. The Third Force in Missions. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 1986.

Purdie, J. Eustace. Concerning the Faith. Toronto: Full Gospel Publishing House, 1951.

________. What We Believe. n.p., n.d.

Quebedeau, Richard. The New Charismatics II: How a Christian Renewal Became Part of the Religious Mainstream. New York, NY: Harper and Row Publishers, 1983.

Rawlyk, George. ed. Amazing Grace: Evangelicalism in Australia, Britain, Canada and the United States Grand Rapids: Baker, 1993.

________. ed. The Canadian Protestant Experience. Burlington: Welch Publishing Co. Inc., 1990.

Reid, Daniel G. ed. Dictionary of Christianity in America. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1990. S.v. "Sects," by Ronald Enroth; "Holiness Movement" by H.E. Raser.

Smith, Harold B. (ed.). Pentecostals from the Inside Out. Wheaton, IL: Victor Press, 1990.

Spittler, Russell P. Perspectives on the New Pentecostalism. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1976.

Synan, Vinson. Aspects of Pentecostal-Charismatic Origins. Plainfield, NJ: Logos International, 1975.

________. The Century of the Holy Spirit. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 2001.

________. The Holiness-Pentecostal Tradition, Charismatic Movements in the Twentieth Century. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1997.

________. The Holiness Pentecostal Movement in the United States. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdman's Publishing Co. 1971.

_______. In the Latter Days. Ann Arbor, MI: Servant Books, 1984.

Walsh, H.H. The Christian Church in Canada. Toronto: The Ryerson Press, 1956.

White, Charles E. The Beauty of Holiness: Phoebe Palmer as Theologian, Revivalist, Feminist, and Humanitarian. Grand Rapids: Francis Asbury Press, 1986.

Wilson, Brian R. Religious Sects. London: World University Press, 1970.

Articles and Parts of Books

Bebbington, David. "Evangelicalism in Modern Britain and America." In Amazing Grace: Evangelicalism in Australia, Britain, Canada and the United States, ed. Rawlyk, George, 183-214. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1993.

Blumhofer, Edith L. "Alexander A. Boddy and the Rise of Pentecostalism in Great Britain." Pneuma 8 (Spring, 1986): 31-40

________." Restoration as Revival: Early American Pentecostalism." In Modern Christian Revivals, ed. Edith L. Blumhofer and Randall Balmer, 145-160. Urbana, Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1993

Burkinshaw, Robert K. "Conservative Evangelicalism in Twentieth-Century 'West'." In Amazing Grace: Evangelicalism in Australia, Britain,Canada and the United States, ed. George Rawlyk, 317-348. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1993.

________. "The Press, Methodists and Fundamentalists: Explanations of the Pentecostal Movement in Victoria and Vancouver, 1923-1925." Canadian Methodist Historical Society Papers 8 (1990): 202-222.

Craig, James D. "R.E. McAlister, Canadian Pentecostal Pioneer." Eastern Journal of Practical Theology 3 (Spring, 1988).

Dieter, Melvin. "The Holiness Revival of the Nineteenth Century Europe." Wesleyan Theological Journal 9 (1974): 15-27.

French, Goldwin. "The Evangelical Creed in Canada." In The Shield of Achilles: Aspects of Canada in the Victorian Age, ed. W.L. Morton, 15-35. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1968.

________. The People Called Methodists in Canada." In The Churches and the Canadian Experience, ed. John Webster Grant, 69-81. Toronto: Ryerson Press, 1963.

Jones, Charles E. "'The Beulah Land and the Upper Room,' Reclaiming the Text in Turn-of-the-century Holiness and Pentecostal Spirituality." Drinking from Our Own Wells, Papers of the Society for Pentecostal Studies 2 (12 November 1992).

Kydd, Ronald. "The Contribution of Denominationally Trained Clergy to the Emerging Pentecostal Movement in Canada." Pneuma 5 (Spring 1983): 17-33.

________. "Pentecostals, Charismatics and the Canadian Denominations." Eglise et Theologie 13 (Mai, 1982): 211-232.

________. "H.C. Sweet: Canadian Churchman." JCCHS 20 (May-June, 1978): 19-30.

Latto, Thomas T. "From Presbyterian Church to Pentecost." PT, May 1958, 7, 28.

Masters, D. C. The Rise of Evangelicalism. Lectures given at Wycliffe College Alumni meetings (1960).

Miller, Thomas William. "The Canadian 'Azusa,' The Hebden Mission in Toronto." Pneuma 8 (Spring, 1986).

________. "The Significance of A. H. Argue for Pentecostal Historiography." Pneuma 8 (Fall, 1986): 120-158.

________. "James Eustace Purdie, Portraits of Pentecostal Pioneers." PT, February 1987, 22-24.

Rennie, Ian S. "Fundamentalism and the Varieties of North American Evangelicalism, 1900-1939." Paper presented at the ISAE Conference on Evangelicalism in Trans-Atlantic Perspective. Wheaton, Illinois, April, 1992.

Ross, Brian. "James Eustace Purdie: The Story of Pentecostal Theological Education." Journal of the Canadian Church Historical Society 17 (December, 1975): 94-103.

__________. "Ralph Cecil Horner: A Methodist Sectarian Deposed, 1887-1895." Journal of the Canadian Church Historical Society 19 (March-June, 1977): 94-103.

Sawatski, Ronald. "Unholy Contentions About Holiness: The Canada Holiness Association and the Methodist Church." Papers of the Canadian Society of Church History (1982): n.p

Semple, Neil. "The Decline of Revival in 19th Century Central Canadian Methodism: The Extraordinary Means of Grace." Papers of the Canadian Methodist Church Historical Society 2 (1977).

Van Die, Marguerite. "'The Double Vision' : Evangelical Piety as Derivative and Indigenous in Victorian Canada." In Evangelicalism: Comparative Studies in Popular Protestantism in North America, the British Isles and Beyond, 1700-1900, eds. Mark A. Noll, David W. Bebbington and George Rawlyk, 253-274. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Wacker, Grant. "The Holy Spirit and the Spirit of the Age in American Protestantism, 1880-1910." Journal of American History 27 (June, 1985): 45-62.

________. Review of Vision of the Disinherited: The Making of American Pentecostalism by Robert Maps Anderson (New York: Oxford University Press, 1979). Pneuma 4 (Fall, 1982): 56, 57.

Webber, Timothy P. "Premillennialism and the Branches of Evangelicalism." In The Variety of American Evangelicalism, eds. Donald W. Dayton and Robert K. Johnson, 5-21. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1991.

White, Charles E. "Phoebe Palmer and the Development of Pentecostal Pneumatology." Wesleyan Theological Journal 22 (Spring/Fall, 1988):198-212.

Theses and Term Papers

Aikens, Alden W. "Christian Perfection in Central Canadian Methodism 1828-1884." Ph.D. thesis, McGill University, 1987.

Althouse, Peter F. "The Ideological Development of Power in Early Pentecostalism." M. Rel. thesis, Wycliffe College, 1993.

Blumhofer, Edith Lydia (Valdvogel). "The Overcoming Life: A Study in the Reformed Evangelical Origins of Pentecostalism." Ph.D. diss., Harvard University, 1977.

Craig, James D. "Out and Out for the Lord: James Eustace Purdie, An Early Anglican Pentecostal. M.A. theses, Wycliffe College, 1995.

Fuller, Clare. "The Effects of the Pentecostal Movement on Canadian Methodist and Holiness Churches, 1906-1930." Term paper, Ontario Theological Seminary, 1986.

Hawkes, Paul. "The Pentecostal Assemblies of Canada Organizational Structure and Growth." Term paper, Gordon Divinity School, 1965.

_______. "Pentecostalism in Canada: A History with Implications for the Future." D.Min. thesis, San Francisco Theological Seminary, 1982.

Klan, Donald. "PAOC Church Growth in British Columbia from Origins Until 1953." Master of Christian Studies thesis, Vancouver: Regent College, 1979.

Pointen, Harold W. "The Holiness Movement Church in Canada." B.D. thesis, Emmanuel College, Victoria University, 1950.

Ross, Brian Robert. "The Emergence of Theological Education within the Pentecostal Assemblies of Canada." M.A. thesis, Knox College, 1971.

Sawatski, Ronald. "'Looking for That Blessed Hope' The Roots of Fundamentalism in Canada 1878-1914." Ph.D. thesis, Toronto: Centre for Religious Studies, 1985.

Stephenson, John. "The Centrality of a Common Interpretation of History to the Self-Definition of the Early Pentecostals." M.Th. thesis, Toronto School of Theology, 1990.

_______. "Primitive Methodists, Paulists and Pentecostals: Toward a Historical Typology of "Declines" and "Decline" of Movements of "Revival." Ph.D. thesis, Wycliffe College and the University of Toronto, 2001.

Whitt, Irving Alfred. "Developing a Pentecostal Missiology in the Canadian Context (1867-1944): The Pentecostal Assemblies of Canada." Ph.D. theses, Fuller Theological Seminary, 1994.

Unger, Walter. "'Earnestly Contending for the Faith': The Role of the Niagara Bible Conference in the Emergence of American Fundamentalism, 1875-1900." Ph.D. thesis, Simon Fraser University, 1981.